Marquis of Montrose

Memoirs of the most renowned James Graham, Marquis of Montrose. Translated from the Latin of the Rev. Dr George Wishart, afterwards Bishop of Edinburgh, to which are added sundry original letters, never before published. Edinburgh: Archibald Constable, 1819. Octavo

Printed for Archibald Constable & Co. Edinburgh; Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown, Paternoster-Row; and Hurst, Robinson & Co., 19 Cheapside, London. 1819. Arms of Dr. George Wishart, in a stained glass window at St. Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh beside the tomb and memorial of Montrose (right.)

Part I

Chap. I – The pretences of the covenanters; their designs discovered by Montrose; they invade England, and seize Newcastle. – Montrose’s correspondence with the king disclosed; he forms an association for the king. – The king’s letters to Montrose intercepted, whereupon he is imprisoned. – A parliament held at Edinburgh in 1641, after which he is released, . . . 21

Chap. II – The behaviour of the covenanters in England. – Montrose confers with the queen at York; is supplanted by the Marquis of Hamilton, whose advice is followed. – The covenanters call a convention at Edinburgh. – Montrose’s conference with Mr Henderson, from whom he learns the designs of the covenanters, . . . 31

Chap. III – Montrose goes to the king, then at Gloucester; his advice approved by the king. – Measures concerted. – Assistance from Ireland promised by the Earl of Antrim. – The Marquis of Hamilton and his brother go up to court, and are disgraced. – Montrose sets out for Scotland, . . . 42

Chap. IV – Montrose’s English soldiers mutiny and desert. – He takes the towns of Dumfries and Carlisle. – State of affairs in Scotland. – Sets out for Scotland in disguise; arrives at Graham of Inchbrakie’s house in Perthshire, . . . 55

Chap. V – The Irish arrive in the Highlands. – Montrose meets them in Athole; is joined by the Athole-men, and by Lord Kilpont and Sir John Drummond; defeats the covenanters at Tippermoor, . . . 67

Chap. VI – Montrose marches from Perth to Cupar in Angus. – Lord Kilpont assassinated by Ardvorlich. – Montrose is joined by the Earl of Airly and his two sons; marches northwards; defeats Lord Burleigh at Aberdeen, . . . 82

Chap. VII – Montrose not supported by proper supplies; occasioned partly by the Marquis of Huntly; obliged to retire into Badenoch; falls sick; his sickness affords great joy to the covenanters; returns by a circuit into the north country; surprised by Argyle and Lothian at Fyvie Castle; several hot skirmishes ensue. – Makes a safe retreat to Balveny, . . . 92

Chap. VIII – Montrose marches into Argyleshire; lays waste and destroys all that country; marches northwards; is opposed by Seaforth; returns, and defeats Argyle at Inverlochy. – Sir Thomas Ogylvie, son of the Early of Airly, killed, . . . 105

Chap. IX – Montrose takes the town of Elgin; is attacked by Colonel Urry, whom he puts to flight; offers battle to Baillie and Urry; deserted by Lewis Gordon and most of that clan; obliged on that account to retire north; in his way he seizes Dundee; makes a safe retreat before the covenanters’ army, . . . 115

Chap. X – Montrose returns to Crieff; is attacked by Baillie, but secures his retreat. – Follows Urry, and obliges him to retire to Inverness. – The battle of Aulderne, in which Urry is defeated, . . . 128

Chap. XI – Urry joined by Baillie. – They provoke Montrose to fight. – He marches south against Lord Lindsay; deserted by the Gordons; gains the battle of Alford. – The Lord Gordon killed, . . . 139

Chap. XII – Montrose marches southward; receives a considerable reinforcement from the Highlands. – The covenanters hold a parliament at Perth. – They march out and attack him in his camp at Methven Wood. – He escapes them; is joined by the Gordons and Ogilvies; marches into Stratherne, . . . 153

Chap. XIII – The Fife-men rise in arms and join the covenanters. – Montrose marches to Kinross; crosses the Forth and encamps at Kilsyth; pursued by Baillie’s army, who attack him and are entirely routed at Kilsyth, . . . 162

Chap. XIV – Great alterations in the kingdom upon the victory at Kilsyth. – Montrose enters Glasgow; is joined by several of the nobility; receives the surrender of the city of Edinburgh. – The prisoners discharged by the covenanters. – The peace of the west country settled, . . . 172

Chap. XV – The intrigues of Roxburgh, Hume and Traquair. – The Highlanders desert and return home. – Montrose appointed captain-general and lieutenant-governor of the kingdom; receives the king’s orders to march southward, and to join Traquair and Roxburgh, who deceive him, . . . 185

Chap. XVI – Montrose marches to Selkirk, where, by the negligence of his scouts, he is surprised by General Lesly; is overpowered and surrounded; but cuts his way through the enemy with a few of his friends, and retires into Athole to levy men, . . . 196

Chap. XVII – Montrose joined by four hundred Athole-men. – Account of the cruel butchery of the prisoners by the covenanters. – Huntly refuses to co-operate with Montrose; yet Aboyne joins him; but soon leaves him. – Montrose returns to Perthshire. – The death of Lord Napier, . . . 208

Chap. XVIII – Montrose marches into Lennox. – Sir William Rollock, Alexander Ogilvie, Sir Philip Nisbet, Colonel O’Kyan, and Major Lachlan, put to death by the covenanters. – Montrose marches into Athole; again attempts a reconciliation with Huntly, but in vain. – He surprises him at last into an interview, at which they concert their future operations, . . . 221

Chap. XIX – A party of Argyle’s men break into Athole; attacked and defeated by the Athole-men. – The covenanters condemn several of their prisoners; Lord Ogilvie escapes. – Colonel Nathaniel Gordon, Sir Robert Spotiswood, Andrew Guthry, and William Murray, executed, . . . 233

Chap. XX – Montrose solicited by his army to execute his prisoners in revenge of the death of his friends, but refuses. – Huntly again disappoints him. – Montrose lays siege to Inverness; but is obliged to raise it, and retires before Middleton. – He endeavours to obtain a conference with Huntly, which he shuns. – Huntly takes the city of Aberdeen, . . . 247

Chap. XXI – Montrose receives orders from the king to disband his army; demands a second order, which is sent to him, with conditions for himself and his friends; whereupon he disbands his army. – The covenanters endeavour to ensnare him. – He and his friends sail for Norway, . . . 250

Part II

Chap. I – Montrose lands in Norway. – Sets out for France. – The courtiers about the queen endeavour to prevent his coming to court. – The reasons of Lord Jermyn’s opposition to him. – His advice to the queen. – She is reconciled to the Presbyterians, . . . 273

Chap. II – Character of the Presbyterians; of the Independents. – The latter become the most powerful, and seize the king. – The Presbyterians apply to Scotland for assistance. – The Scots raise an army, and appoint the Duke of Hamilton general. – Two factions in Scotland, Hamilton’s and Argyles, . . . 288

Chap. III – The Duke of Hamilton marches his army into England, joined by several of the English, defeated by Cromwell at Preston, and surrenders himself. – A new army raised in Scotland, and the command given to the Earl of Lanark. – He is joined by great numbers of the nobility and gentry. – General Moare, contrary to Lanark’s intentions, attacks and defeats Argyle at Stirling. – Lanark’s loyalty suspected. – At length he concludes a dishonourable peace with Argyle, . . . 303

Chap. IV – Montrose leaves the queen’s court; countenanced by the emperor of Prague. – Receives the news of the king’s murder; attends King Charles II at the Hague. – His advice opposed by Lanark and Lauderdale. – The Duke of Hamilton beheaded, . . . 329

Chap. V – The proclamation of the estates declaring Charles II King of Scotland, brought to the Hague. – The Earl of Cassilis and other commissioners arrive there. – The Marquis of Huntly beheaded. – The demands of the estates presented to the king by their commissioners. – The opinion of the Scots peers concerning them. – The king leaves them, and goes to France, . . . 346

Chap. VI – Montrose prepares for a descent upon Scotland. – The state of that kingdom. – His disappointments. – He lands in Caithness. – Strachan, Lesly, and Holborn, sent against him. – He publishes his declaration; defeated by Strachan; apprehended by the Laird of Assint; and delivered to David Lesly, . . . 361

Chap. V – The parliament condemns Montrose in his absence. – Their sentence against him. – The treatment of him when he arrived at Edinburgh. – His speech before the parliament. – His speech and behaviour at his execution, . . . 383

Chap. VI – Character of the Marquis of Montrose. – Colonel Urry, Spotiswood of Dairsie, Sir Francis Hay, and Colonel Sibbald, all executed – Captain Chertis, not withstanding his complying with the ministry to save his life, is also put to death, . . . 406


No. I – The manifesto of the Scots army when they entered England in 1640, . . . 411

II – Two letters from the king to Montrose, anno 1644, thanking him for his good services, and desiring the continuance of them, . . . 421

III – A letter from the queen to Montrose, assuring him of her confidence and assistance, . . . 423

IV – The king’s commission to the Marquis of Montrose to be lieutenant-govenor and general of all his majesty’s forces in Scotland, . . . 424

V – A letter from the Marquis of Montrose to President Spotiswood, . . . 427

VI – Sir Robert Spotiswood’s letter to Lord Digby, wrote by him before the battle of Philiphaugh, and found in his pocket when he was made prisoner, . . . 428

VII – The last speech of Sir Robert Spotiswood, intended to have been spoken by him at his execution, . . . 430

VIII – Sir Robert Spotiswood’s letter to the Marquis of Montrose, wrote by him the day before his execution, . . . 433

IX – Three letters from the king, when he was with the Scots army at Newcastle, to the Marquis of Montrose, containing his orders to the marquis for disbanding his forces, and going to France, . . . 434

X – A letter from the king to the Marquis of Montrose, congratulating him on his safe arrival in the Low Countries, after disbanding his army, and recommending him to the queen. – A letter from the queen thanking him for his past services, . . . 437

XI – A letter from the queen to the marquis, encouraging him in the resolution of avenging the king’s murder, . . . 439

XII – Six letters from the archives of the family of Seaforth, . . . 440

XIII – Two letters from Prince Rupert to Montrose, . . . 445

XIV – Commission from King Charles II, to the Marquis of Montrose, for settling the differences with the town of Hamburgh, and borrowing a sum of money from the senate, . . . 446

XV – A letter from King Charles II to the Marquis of Montrose, encouraging him in his preparations for making a descent upon Scotland, . . . 447

XVI – An address from the Committee of Estates in Scotland to King Charles II after the treaty at the Hague had miscarried, . . . 448

XVII – A letter from his majesty to the Committee of Estates, in answer to their address, and appointing their commissioners to meet and treat with him at Breda, . . . 450

XVIII – A letter from his majesty to the Marquis of Montrose, sent him with copies of the committee’s address, and his majesty’s answer, and requiring him to prosecute his design upon Scotland vigorously, . . . 452

XIX – Declaration of his Excellency, James Marquis of Montrose, Earl of Kincardine, Lord Graham, Baron of Montdieu, lieutenant-governor and captain-general, for his majesty, of the kingdom of Scotland, anno 1649, . . . 454

XX – The declaration and warning of the commissioners of the General Assembly, unto all the members of this kirk and kingdom, in answer to a paper intitled and reputed the Declaration of James Graham, . . . 458

XXI – A declaration of the Committee of Estates of the parliament of Scotland, in vindication of their proceedings, from the aspersions of a scandalous pamphlet, published by that excommunicate traitor, James Graham, under the title of a Declaration of James Marquis of Montrose, . . . 464

XXII – List of the prisoners taken and killed by Colonel Strachan, when he defeated Montrose, published at Edinburgh a few days after the battle, . . . 491

XXIII – The last speech of Colonel William Sibbald, intended to have been spoken by him at his execution, 7th January 1650, . . . 492

XXIV – Verses wrote by the Marquis of Montrose upon the murder of King Charles I, with Dr Wishart’s latin translation, . . . 495

XXV – A poem in praise of women by Montrose, . . . 496

XXVI – Verses wrote by the Marquis of Montrose with the point of a diamond upon the glass window of his prison, after receiving his sentence. – On false friends, a poem by Montrose, . . . 503

XXVII – Extract from the Mercurius Caledonius, . . . 504

XXVIII – A relation of the true funerals of the Great Lord Marquis of Montrose, his Majesty’s Lord High Commissioner, and Captain General of his forces in Scotland. With that of the renowned knight Sir William Hay of Delgity, . . . 506

Elogium tumulo inscribendum, . . 523